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Author Topic:   Passover in 70 C.E.
YermeYah

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posted 03-28-2002 06:24 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for YermeYah   Click Here to Email YermeYah     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
The following is taken from the Catholic Encyclopedia article:

Jerusalem (before A.D. 71).

If the information in the article is true, it proves that Aviv 1 can be before the vernal equinox...

After the ephemeral reigns of three emperors, aggregating eighteen months, Vespasian was raised to the throne in November, 69.

Titus received from his father the command of the Army of the East, and in the following year, at the season when the Holy City was crowded with those who had come to the Feast of the Passover, he began to lay siege to it. On the 14th day of Kanthic (Bell. Jud., V, xiii, 7), or of the Hebrew month Abib--the day of the Passover, corresponding to 31 March-Titus took up his position on Mount Scopus with the Fifth, Seventh, and Fifteenth Legions, while the Tenth Legion occupied the Mount of Olives. On the other side, John of Giscala held the Temple, the Antonia, and the new town at Bezetha, with 11,000 men, and Simon, the son of Giora, held the upper and lower city, on the southwestern hill, with 10,000 men.

(a couple of paragraphs later)...

The walls of the Temple and those of the city were demolished. But Titus wished to preserve the fortress of the upper city, with the three magnificent towers of Herod's palace. Besides, the upper city was needed as a fortified station for the Tenth Legion, which was left to garrison Jerusalem. During this siege-one of the most sanguinary recorded in history -600,000 Jews, according to Tacitus (Hist., V, xiii), or, according to Josephus, more than a million, perished by the sword, disease, or famine. The survivors died in gladiatorial combats or were sold into slavery.

(note: since the Gregorian calender did not exist in 70 C.E., the date in the article is probably from the Julian Calendar, but the following will show the conversion from the Julian calendar to Gregorian calendar, and visa versa)...

31 / March / 70 AD Julian/Old Style = 29 / March / 70 AD Gregorian/Western

31 / March / 70 AD Gregorian/Western = 2 / April / 70 AD Julian/Old Style

Calendar conversion taken from:

Tarek's Hijri/Gregorian/Julian Converter

[This message has been edited by YermeYah (edited 03-28-2002).]

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servant of YHVH

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posted 03-28-2002 11:13 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for servant of YHVH   Click Here to Email servant of YHVH     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
shalom TRUTH SEEKERS,

quote:
Originally posted by YermeYah:
The following is taken from the Catholic Encyclopedia

That should be your first clue as to accuracy and/or reliability.

quote:
Originally posted by YermeYah:

If the information in the article is true, it proves that Aviv 1 can be before the vernal equinox...


BIG GIANT IF!

Flowing in The Anointing that is The Ruach ha Kadosh makes all the difference in the world [* BUT not of the world *]! [* I Corinthians 2:10-16 *]

Remember, The Anointing is The TRUTH and is NO LIE! [* I Yochanon 2:27 *]

Are you anti-Mashiach?

Scripture declares right out those that are!

You can read about it in this old, historical writing at http://www.childrenofjesus.org/page129.html

[This message has been edited by servant of YHVH (edited 03-28-2002).]

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servant of YHVH

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posted 03-28-2002 11:19 AM     Click Here to See the Profile for servant of YHVH   Click Here to Email servant of YHVH     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
\o/ \o/
Hi Chris:

Thank you for the opportunity for me to respond to this claim.

In 325 CE the Council of Nicea met to discuss several issues, only one of which was how to determine the date of Easter which is really pascha in the Greek and should be translated passover. Bede's writings show the first English use of the term Easter. The details of the decisions at the Council of Nicea about passover are NOT actually stated in surviving written documents, but from subsequent writings that have survived, certain conclusions are drawn. One conclusion is that the full moon must be after the equinox for the first month. Over the past 23 years I have been studying this matter and have much historical documentation from a variety of sources. This is no time to go into a lot of detail. While I have no actual paper that I have written on this matter as yet, on several occasions in which I have lectured on the calendar I have taken along a summary folder about early secular church history and commentaries regarding this, and I have been prepared to discuss the matter for hours if need be.

A knowledge of the Jewish calendar before the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE in terms of SPECIFIC historical dates is almost non-existent. Perhaps the best book in terms of scholarship and accuracy regarding the Jewish - Roman war from 66 to 70 CE (heavily using data from Josephus) and what may be ascertained about dates is given in the book "Jerusalem Under Siege" by Jonathan J. Price (Brill, 1992). This book is a revision of Price's doctoral dissertation and he had advisement from several notable scholars who are themselves experts on Josephus. The subject has been of interest to me, and I have a photocopy of selected parts of Price's book, though not the pages that deal specifically with War 5.8.7 because Price is not able to give a known date for this. I write this because I have taken Price's book out of the library in the past, and whenever he had something definitive to say about dates, I photocopied that. However, Price points out that the precise correlation between the months names used by Josephus and the Julian calendar dates are NOT known historically, but that does not prevent modern historians from guessing, and then writing history as if their guesses are more than guesses.

The Catholic Encyclopedia undoubtedly has one historian's reconstruction and guess about the date in order to agree with the decision of the Council of Nicea in 325 CE. In order words a political decision made in 325 based on inaccurate and incomplete information was used to go backwards into the first century and provide the guess of a date as if the guess was a fact.

One important discovery that was made in the late 19th century was a marble plaque found in today's Lybia where there had been a Jewish settlement in ancient Cyrene (see Acts 2:10). This marble plaque is in a museum in France now. It has Greek writing that is dated to the year 25 CE and proves that in that year two or three days before the vernal equinox that Jewish settlement began a 13th month.

Have a great day.
Love in Yahshua,
Herb

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YermeYah

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posted 03-28-2002 09:05 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for YermeYah   Click Here to Email YermeYah     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
Servant,

It has been pointed out to me, that in your "Lesson 8", Josephus is quoted...

"In the month of Xanthicus [i.e., April, ISBE, s.v. "Xanthicus"], which is by us called Nisan, and is the beginning of our year, on the fourteenth day of the lunar month, when the sun is in Aries ... the law ordained that we should every year slay that sacrifice ... which is called the Passover" (Flavius Josephus, The Antiquities of the Jews, III, X, § 5).

By observing Aviv 14 on the 26th or 27th of April, the sun in not in Aries.

YermeYah

[This message has been edited by YermeYah (edited 03-28-2002).]

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Shlomoh

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posted 03-29-2002 03:45 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Shlomoh     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
YermeYah,

Nowadays the sun is in Pisces at the spring equinox because of the phenomonon known as the "precession of the equinoxes". I don't know if it will be in Aries by the end of March or not. If not then those keeping Passover in April will technically be in Aries and those who keep Passover in March will not. Since the sun astrologically enters Aries at the time of the equinox, Josephus was simply saying that Passover was after the equinox (March 20 or 21 on the Gregorian calendar). As Herb pointed out, in AD 25 the Jews in Cyrene at least observed the new moon just a few days before the equinox as the thirteenth new moon. While this in itself does not prove Abib one is always after the equinox, it does prove the above understanding of Josephus' statement.

In His Service,

Shlomoh

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Dierk

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posted 04-02-2002 04:35 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Dierk   Click Here to Email Dierk     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
For those who had followed Menahem, Eleazar et al., i.e. the defenders of Jerusalem, Pessach was - acc. to the luni-solar 365-day calendar - always on Nisan 14, day two of the week.

Hosha'na min ha-Kitti'im

Dierk

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Dierk

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posted 04-02-2002 04:39 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Dierk   Click Here to Email Dierk     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
Obviously, "mi ha-Kitti'im"
:E

D.

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BrCharles

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posted 04-05-2002 09:31 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for BrCharles   Click Here to Email BrCharles     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote
Well, I checked the article mentioned in the post starting this thread and two specific dates were given in both Hebrew and Gregorian. The first was to be the date of Passover. It said in the article that Passover (which is Nisan 14) was on March 31. The second date was that of the end of the siege of Jerusalem. It said on August 1, or Erev 8, and is said to have been 143 days since the beginning of the siege.

Well, I checked one of the programs I use called Home Planet that you can download off the internet. It showed that March 31 would have been just one day after the new moon. Well, the 14th of any Hebrew month is within 2 days of the FULL moon. Looking back, the vernal equinox was around March 23 and the New moon just before that was March 1st. Since the Jews only allow the new moon to occur within 3 days before the equinox to count as the first month, this would mean the year would not have started until the next new moon, which would be March 30th! Thus Passover would have been April 13th, not March 31st.

Therefore, the Catholic article seems to be wrong. But I mentioned two dates in the article. If you wish to confirm the information in the previous paragraph as well as the following information, open up the following link:
http://www.calendarhome.com/converter/

Now, if you enter the date of August 1, 70CE in this converter website and click on calculate, it shows the Julian date to the right. But scroll down and see what the Hebrew calendar shows. It shows Av 8! This date matches what the article says.

So what can we do from here? Well, remember it said the siege lasted 143 days? Well, in that same website, it shows the Gregorian Serial Day as 25415. Subtract 143 and you get 25272 which you can enter and press calculate. The date that comes up is March 11, one full month before Passover would normally be kept on April 13. If it is true and the Passover was kept one month earlier, it would be outside even what the Jews accept now as proper determination of the start of the year. Or was this a sign of the deterioration of the nation and their observance of Yahweh's laws?

Either way, the article from the Catholic Encyclopedia just doesn't figure out.

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Minnesota Marlin

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posted 04-05-2002 09:55 PM     Click Here to See the Profile for Minnesota Marlin   Click Here to Email Minnesota Marlin     Edit/Delete Message Reply w/Quote


Yahweh's calendar
Yahweh's real calendar is simple! Paul tells us:
"... from the simplicity that is in Yahshua ..."

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Many people today are wondering what the real calendar is!
Or, how to observe and to count the real calendar Yahweh gave to us.

It's always a problem for a lot of people: how to know the beginning of a new year, when does a new month begin and when does the feasts of Yahweh start.
Let me tell you this: If it is so difficult and only possible for a "smart cookie" a normal fisherman or a farmer never will get it! When I read the Holy Bible, I don't feel that real believers are all high-educated people, more just ordinary people. Paul mentions the simplicity that's in Yahshua!
There are no hidden secrets or "mysteries" when we talk about Yah's calendar, it's not just for the "only happy few" or "elite" but it is for everybody, and don't forget, we are all equal "... for there is no respect of persons with Yahweh..." as Romans 2:11 and Ephesians 6:9 tell us. ...or are some people more equal than others... I don't think so!

Let's see how we can figure it all out...

In Genesis 1:14 it tell's us that the sun and the moon are to determine the seasons: "... And Yahweh said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and for years...". The lights in the firmament like the sun, moon and the stars, are important for us as a sign.

The word "seasons" is Strong # 4150 and means "mowed" or "moed" and that means an "appointment" or "appointed time".

So the sun and the moon are both used to determine the time! The sun determines a year and a year is split into seasons, to start with spring, summer, fall and the winter. The moon determines a month.

Yahweh marked those seasons with the spring equinox (March 20-21), summer solstice, fall equinox and winter solstice.

A new year or the first month of a year, starts in spring and never in winter. There is no way at all that the first month of a year can or will fall partly in the winter of the previous year, and partly in the spring of the new year.

Exodus 12:2 states about the beginning of months or begin of a year "..it shall be the first month of the year to you..." and we also read "...observe the month Abib, and keep the Passover..." in Deuteronomy 16:1. It tells us that the first month is Abib and we also know that "...for the barley was in the ear..." (Exodus 10:31). We now know that the first month's name is Abib and that the barley is in the ear, so it must be in spring time!

All of the first month Abib must be in the spring. Spring starts at the spring equinox. A new Year or the first of Abib starts on or after the spring equinox with the first visible new moon or new crescent. A new year starts not with the nearest new moon to the spring equinox but with the first new moon on or after spring equinox and that means always after March 19.


Please don't forget: what is a sign, if you can't see it with your eyes...
To give you more information about the real calendar, I copied and revised three articles I once received. I don't know who made them or where they came from...


"GREEN EARS" or EQUINOX ?
Many churches, ministries and assemblies determine New Year's Day or "Abib one" by taking the first crescent on or after the spring equinox of March 20 or 21.
Other groups take the first crescent of "green ears" of barley. Here are some of the reasons why we should use the equinox rather than "green ears".

1 From Adam to Noah (1556 years), "green ears" could not have been used since perpetual springtime existed. There were no seasons then. "Spring was forever" (Ovid Meta.1:88-108). Genesis 8:22 is when "...a seed time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter..." began. From Adam to Noah the equinox must have been used.


2 On board ship, Noah wasn't able to examine a barley field in Israel or anywhere else (Gen. 8:13), so he must have used the equinox.


3 Israel was led in the wilderness for forty years (Deut. 29:5) without examining the barley in Jerusalem or Palestine.


4 Barley is variable and not precise. It ripens faster in warmer latitudes nearer the equator than in colder northern areas farther from the equator. Also, the barley ripens faster in valleys or at low altitudes than on mountains or at high altitudes. As Herbert Solinsky points out: "...there is about a sixty day variation in the time of the ripening of barley depending on the location within Palestine..." (page 48 of "The Calendar God Gave Moses"). As Yisrael Hawkins states: "...When grain is ripening to a golden color in the South Texas Valley, the North Texas grain is not even in the ear..." (page 8 of "...Yahweh's Passover & Yahshua's Memorial...")


5 In light of the variation of "green ears" in different locations,where is the supposed "Bible authorized" location? There is no clear-cut answer. The first location was in the Nile Delta in Egypt (Ex. 9:31 & 12:2). Later Israel encountered "green ears" located in the Jericho Valley in Israel (Josh. 5:10 cp.2:6 where "Flax was bolled" (Ex. 932)). But virtually all assemblies ignore these two locations. Instead, they use Mount Zion* or Mount Sinai* by inferring into Exodus 12:24 something that's not there. The Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread are the "ordinance", not "green ears" of barley.


6 What did Christians do for thousands of years who lived in the southern hemisphere? The cycle of seasons is opposite from the northern hemisphere. "Green ears" are no guide at all down there. But the Equinox works well all over the world.


7 Mount Zion* and/or Mount Sinai* are not the best latitudes for the earliest barley. Also, it is on a hill rather than in a valley. And what if Mount Zion faces a prolonged drought? What if a locust plague sweeps through Palestine before "green ears" appear? As Christ said: "...The hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father..." (John 4:21). For hundreds of years, Jerusalem was occupied by Canaanites. Moses, Joshua, Deborah, Gideon and Samuel didn't check Jerusalem (a Jebusite town) for "green ears". Therefore, we see that Jerusalem has many potential problem, but the equinox is unaffected by all these problems.


8 We observe sunsets locally in the western sky to determine the sabbath day. A new day starts as soon the sun is disappeared behind the horizon. We observe lunar crescents locally in the western sky to determine a new month. But "green ears" can't be observe locally or in the sky. They don't fit the pattern. They're not consistent.
Instead, to be consistent, let us observe the star locally which appears each year n the equinox to determine the new year's day. The Hayden Planetarium of New York as report in the New York Times, March 20, 1988, page 39, shows that the people of antiquity easily knew the spring equinox by Arcturus - a bright, first magnitude star which appears shortly after sunset in the twilight (the handle of the Big Dipper points to it) - which always appears March 21st after the previous evening's sunset in the northern hemisphere. It's the brightest spring star in the northern hemisphere. This is all in keeping with Genesis 1:14-16 which says the sun, moon and stars are for the purpose of determining the days, seasons and years! Not the barley.



9 Yahshua said: "...Are there not twelve hours in the day?" (John 11:9) and this was spoken seven days before Passover (John 11:7-9 and 12:1).
In the spring, day and night are equal for several days around the time of the equinox if the observer is standing on the equator. The latitude of Jerusalem (31.8m) makes it impossible for day and night to be equal length there on the equinox. Instead they are equal length there before equinox and daytime is longer than nighttime there on the equinox.

But Yahshua's remark at the approximate time of the equinox implies that Yahshua was conscious of the equinox at this Passover time. But He made no remark concerning the state of the barley.



CRESCENT or CONJUNCTION ?
Is the biblical new moon the first faint visible crescent or the invisible astronomical lunar conjunction? Here are a number of reasons why we should use the crescent rather than the invisible conjunction.

1 The ancient Hebrews had no almanacs, telescopes or computers with advanced software (like SkyMap v2.26-1995 by Marriott/JASC 76226.2652@compuserve.com or the CD-Rom "Explore your Universe") to figure out when the lunar conjunction would occur. The discoveries of Newton were millennia away. They had no choice but to use visible crescent.


2 The Hebrew words "yerach" and "lebanah", translated "moon" are never used to describe the first day of the month. The Hebrew word "chodesh" is translated "new moon".

In Gesenius Hebrew/Chaldee Lexicon we find that the term "chodesh" (Strong # 2320) which comes from "chadash" (Strong # 2318) and means to be new, or to polish a sword. In other words, it appears as a scimitar, or curved sword. It is not invisible!


3 Psalm 81:3 says: "...Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed (Heb. "keseh" meaning "full moon"), on our solemn east day." Since we know that the new moon and feast of the full moon must first and fifteenth days of the month respectively, it naturally follows for us to ask whether or not there can be a full moon fifteen days after a crescent. Or must we use the lunar conjunction in order to come out right?

The truth is that "The necessary time for full moon varies from 13.73 to 15.80 days after conjunction" Over two days - depending on how the ellipse is oriented with respect to the sun and earth since it is off center! (The Calendars Of Ancient Egypt by Richard A. Parker)
So from crescent to full moon would have even greater variability than this. When 200 such months were fed into a computer at random, it was fond that the full moon proper occurred the 12th day after the crescent only once; 13th day after 44 times; 14th day after 94 times; 15th day after 60 times and 16th day after only once.

In other words, the full moon proper doesn't always fall on the 15th day, so Psalm 81:3 means just basically round - not hair-splitting.



4 Revelation 12:1-5 says that:"...there appeared a great wonder in heaven... ...a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet... ...and she, being with child, cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered... ...ad she brought forth a man child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron..."

If an a astronomer were to read this passage, he would automatically think of the constellation Virgo at the point in time when the sun's path in the heavens crosses through her body. This event always accurse in mid-October, the exact time of the Feast of Trumpets in many years.

If Yahshua's first coming was on this feast, as we think his second coming will be, then we know it was a new moon that was visible to John.

The Feast of Trumpets can occur as many as 29 days after September 23rd (Autumnal equinox) or as few as the same day if the equinox and the crescent occur on the same day. Since John saw the moon under her feet, it couldn't have been the lunar conjunction.


5 The historical precedent is visible crescents. As Hastings Dict. of the Bible, art. "New Moon", page 522 says: "...there was no fixed calendar till the 4th century... and the New Moon was declared from actual observation. The eye witnesses were carefully examined on the 3th day of each month... If no witnesses were available, then the following day was New Moon..."

As the Jewish Encyc., art. "New Moon", page 243 says: "...the Sanhedrin was assembled in the courtyard ("bet ya'azek") of Jerusalem on the 30th of each month from morning to evening, waiting for the reports of those appointed to observe the new moon..."

(See also Mishnah R.H.i.7, ii.5-7; Sanh.102) The article "History of the Calendar", page 498 says: "...the history of the Jewish calendar may be divided into three periods - the biblical, the talmudic and the post-talmudic. The first rested purely on the observation of the sun and the moon, the second on observation and reckoning, the third entirely on reckoning..."

As the Encyclopedia Judaica, art. "New Moon", page 1039 says: "...originally, the new moon was not fixed by astronomical calculations, but was solemnly proclaimed after witnesses had testified to the reappearance of the crescent of the moon. On the 30th of each month, the members of the High court (Sanhedrin) assembled in a courtyard in Jerusalem, named Beit Ya'azek, where they waited to receive the testimony of two reliable witnesses; they then sanctified the new moon. If the moon's crescent was not seen on the 30th day, the new moon was automatically celebrated on the 31th day..."


6 Each month is 29 or 30 days long. This is why Saul held a two-day festival (1 Sam. 20:27, 34). David and Jonathan knew in advance that there would be a new moon festival the next day (1 Sam. 20:5,18), and the day after that, because of their mentioning waiting until the third day (1 Sam. 20:5,12,19).

But they didn't know in advance whether the crescent would appear the first day or the second. The very fact that two days were celebrated rather than just one is proof of their inability to predict with certainty the new moon day.
Calculating the lunar conjunction is precise and unambiguous. Only one day is needed using that method.


CRESCENT on or after SPRING EQUINOX ?
Many churches and assemblies take the crescent closest to the spring equinox, even if that crescent happens to fall before the equinox, and call that "Abib One".

Thus their holy days ar one month to early. The correct method is to take the first crescent on or after the spring equinox and call that day "Abib one".

Other churches and assemblies use the "green ears" instead of the equinox. This method is synonymous with using either side of the equinox.

Here are some of the reasons why it is correct to use the first crescent on or after the spring equinox.

1 It is not consistent to have Abib one in the spring some years and in the winter other years. The festivals are to occur in their seasons - not out of them (Deut.16:6; Num. 13:10).
Deuteronomy 16:1, Exodus 23:15 and 34:18 all make it clear that the moon must be "OF" the "GREEN EARS", not before them. There had to be enough barley developed for the wave sheaf (Lev. 23:11).


2 If Abib one can fall before the spring equinox, then Passover will always fall in the spring, but Trumpets, Atonement, Tabernacle and Last Great Day will fall mostly in the summer, not autumn or fall.

The fall holy days will be celebrated in two different seasons. Instead of harvesting crops during the harvest moon, people will have to travel to the feast empty-handed as their crops rot in the fields.

If Abib one can fall 13 days before the equinox, then Tishri one, of the month Tishri, will be 21 or 22 days before the fall equinox. It is not proper to have harvest festivals in the summer (Lev. 23:39).


3 Farmers and shepherds, two and three thousand years ago, didn't know ahead of time if the equinox would be March 20, 21 or even 19. They didn't have almanacs.

So if a crescent came 13, 14 or 15 days before they wouldn't know if it were nearer or not ahead of time. Not only this, but also they couldn't predict ahead of time whether the month would have 29 or 30 days, further blurring the midpoint.

And even if the equinox was March 20, and the crescent was 14 days before, the actual time of the equinox would fall many hours after the taking of the Passover on the night of the 19th. So even on the same day, Passover here falls short of spring.

The ancients probably couldn't even calculate the equinox to the nearest day, let alone hour or minute. The equinox might fall at noon the 20th.


4 The requirement of ripe barley for the wave sheaf (Lev. 23:11), limits Abib 15 to 21 to a time period from the beginning of April to early June (Solinsky page 46-48).

"...barley begins to ripen in Palestina with the beginning of April, and in the lower and warmer parts the cutting is begun at the end of the same month. Hence we see that the first new moon, which began the first month and the Jewish year, could only take place in the last days of March at the earliest, and the sacrifice of the "omer" (wave sheaf) at the earliest only some days before the end of the first half of April..." (Astronomy in the Old Testament, Giovanni V. Shiaparelli, 1905, Oxford).

But if we use crescents 14 days before the equinox, Passover can fall as early March 19th.


5 According to one source, Yahshua's last Passover was observed in a year when the crescent before the equinox was closer than the one after, and yet Yahshua used the one after. Only 28, 31 and 34AD had wednesday Passover dates, and only 31 AD is likely among these three (Solinsky page 63).

That being the case, the only Wednesday Passover of 31 AD was April 23rd. Fourteen days earlier makes April 9th which is 18 days after March 21st (latest possible equinox) showing that the nearer crescent before the equinox wasn't used (The Calendar Yahweh Gave to Moses, Herb Solinsky, page 75)


6 From the book "Calendarium Palestini" by William Carpenter, page 32, we read about the Passover and Days of Unleavened Bread: "...it was celebrated on the 14th day of the moon next after the vernal equinox and continued seven days..." (this was written folks in 1825!)

Furthermore, we know that Ezra and Nehemiah used the Babylonian names for the months of the calendar. By all indications, they actually used the Babylonian calendar itself and knew no other. We know that the Babylonian calendar used visible crescents and also it di not allow the first month of the year to come before the vernal equinox for hundreds of years.

No less an authority than Otto Neugebauer knew of no archaeological evidence to the contrary that the Babylonian and Biblical calendars are the same. Also, according to the Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, pages 46 to 51, we find that Rabbon Simeon Ben Gamaliel (Paul's teacher) intercalated a month on three grounds: tekufah, barley and roads. He said the most important method was tekufah.

When they asked if the other two matter, Gamaliel made no reply because he would have been persecuted by the Pharisees if he had contradicted them.


Now... the most important truth of all so far presented... When did the death of our Saviour, Yahshua Messiah occur?

Yahshua died at the age of 33 ½ years on a Wednesday, the 14th of Abib in 31 CE. The visible new moon of that month occurred after the vernal equinox and was not the nearest new moon to the equinox.

His death occurred on April 25, in the year 31 CE, similar to the calendar sequence in 1983. Please don't forget there is no year 0 and that Yahshua was born e few years before our era. Also Yahshua had to die at the right time, because He is the only real sacrifice! Amen!

The Jewish calendar uses an inexact 19-year cycle that was one month off in 1983 and 1991. Our Master did not observe the holy days in accordance with the Jewish calendar of today.

Let us all follow His perfect example.


THE CONCLUSION IS:

1 We have to take the first visible new moon (crescent) - with our eyes - on or after the Spring Equinox - March 20 or 21, for the beginning of a new year, in the Western sky at the end of the day.


2 We have to take the next first visible new moon (crescent) - with our eyes - for the beginning of a new month, in the Western sky at the end of the day.

* Mount Zion and Mount Sinai:

Mount Zion is a small hill in Jerusalem in the south-east, between Kidron and the Tyropoeon valley.
Mount Sinai is in Saudi Arabia. Most people think that Mount Sinai is hill Mūsa (28o32' N - 33o59' E) at mount Gebel el Igma (30o30' N - 29o51' E) in the desert of Egypt.
But it is not. The real mount Sinai is across the Gulf of Aqaba in Saudi Arabia in the mountains of al Lawz and al Magla. In line with Jerusalem, both at 35o13'-15' east.

"...the one from the mount Sinai, which gendereth to bondage, which is Agar. For this Agar is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to Jerusalem..." (Galatians 4:24-25)

For more information about mount Sinai look at: http://www.serveonline.com/gallery/gallery.html of Discoveries Gallery.


The first day of Yahweh's year starts:
1997 April 9 - 1998 March 30 - 1999 April 18
(Days are about and based on the visible sighting of the new moon.)

For more information about Yah's calendar:

Booklets:


Whose Calendar? Yahweh's or the Jews

by John Trescott - 900 W. Alabama - Anadarko, OK 73005-4639 - USA


What's Wrong With the Calendar?

by Harold Hemenway - P.O. Box 88401 - Seattle, Washington 98188 - USA


Audiocassettes:


Calendar Bible Study - I to V

by Herb Solinsky - 1911 Landsdown Ct. - Carrollton, TX 75010 - USA

What do You mean? Moses Seat

by John Trescott

Videotapes:

The Calendar Yahweh gave to Moses - I to IV (NTSC VHS System only)

by Herb Solinsky
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Yahshua is King Sabbath Fellowship 1997
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8021 EH Zwolle
the Netherlands

Phone and Fax: + 31 38 453 55 57
E-mail: yahshua@cybercomm.nl
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